Hemorrhoid: Causes, Types, Treatment


Dear friends, have you ever suddenly felt something protruding from your rectum or anus during a bowel movement? If so, it’s essential to be cautious. It could be a hemorrhoid, commonly known as piles or just “hemorrhoids” in layman’s terms. Other symptoms of hemorrhoids include bowel movements accompanied by fresh blood, pain, discomfort, itching, and mucus in the anal area. But what exactly are hemorrhoids?

About Hemorrhoid

Hemorrhoids are swellings in the veins around the rectum or anus. The occurrence of swollen blood vessels is similar to varicose veins commonly found on a woman’s legs, especially those who frequently wear high heels.

However, with hemorrhoids, the varicose veins occur in the rectum or anus area. Although the exact cause of hemorrhoids is not yet known, several factors can increase your risk of developing them, including:

  • Inadequate fiber intake
  • Constipation (difficulty passing stools) or chronic diarrhea
  • Excessive straining during bowel movements
  • Prolonged sitting during bowel movements
  • Obesity
  • Pregnancy

So what should you do if you’ve ever felt something protruding from your rectum during a bowel movement?

It’s always better to consult a specialist surgeon. Unfortunately, many people often try to self-medicate without consulting a doctor first. Various types of hemorrhoid medications, ranging from oral medications to ointments, have been used by many people.

However, the treatment for hemorrhoids varies depending on the type and grade of hemorrhoids.

Types of Hemorrhoids

Based on their location, hemorrhoids are divided into two types:

1. Internal Hemorrhoids

Internal hemorrhoids are hemorrhoids that form inside the rectum, the lower part of the large intestine. Usually, there’s no visible protrusion in the anal area, except for grades III and IV. Here’s the breakdown of internal hemorrhoid grades:

  • Grade I = swollen blood vessels inside the anus wall
  • Grade II = swollen blood vessels that protrude during bowel movements and retract on their own afterward
  • Grade III = swollen blood vessels that protrude from the anus but can still be pushed back in manually
  • Grade IV = swollen blood vessels that protrude from the anus and cannot be pushed back in

2. External Hemorrhoids

External hemorrhoids are hemorrhoids that form under the skin around the anus. They usually appear as protrusions in the anal area.

Effective Hemorrhoid Treatment Methods

Hemorrhoid treatment can be divided into invasive and minimally invasive procedures. Here are the types of treatment available to eliminate hemorrhoids:

1. Hemorrhoidectomy

Hemorrhoidectomy is a surgical procedure to remove internal or external hemorrhoids, usually performed under general or local anesthesia in an operating room.

Hemorrhoid removal is done by making incisions on the hemorrhoids using a surgical knife, scissors, or electrocautery.

After undergoing this procedure, you may experience pain for some time. However, don’t worry because your doctor will provide pain relief medication and educate you on post-procedural care.

Doctors can also perform stapled hemorrhoidopexy, a procedure done with a special device to cut excess hemorrhoidal tissue, returning hemorrhoids to their original position. This procedure is commonly done for grade III and IV internal hemorrhoids.

2. Rubber Band Ligation

Rubber band ligation is a procedure to cut off the blood circulation of hemorrhoidal tissue by placing a special rubber band around the base of the hemorrhoids.

3. Sclerotherapy

Sclerotherapy involves injecting a special chemical solution into the hemorrhoidal tissue to shrink it.

4. Hemorrhoidal Artery Ligation

Hemorrhoidal artery ligation involves tying the blood vessels responsible for hemorrhoidal tissue blood circulation and returning the tissue or hemorrhoid pad to its physiological or normal position. This procedure does not involve cutting or removing hemorrhoidal tissue, resulting in minimal post-operative pain.

Doctor Recommendations for Hemorrhoid Treatment

Hemorrhoid surgery can be performed by a specialist surgeon or digestive surgeon. Here are some doctors who can handle hemorrhoids:

dr. Ismon Kusasi, Sp.B (K) V

dr. Erwin Suryanegara, Sp.B. MSI.Med

Prof Dr dr Toar Jean Maurice Lalisang SpB(K)BD

If you’re experiencing troublesome hemorrhoids, don’t hesitate to consult our doctors. Mandaya Royal Hospital Puri has a comprehensive surgery center with complete equipment and experienced specialist doctors. Feel free to schedule your appointment with a doctor now through WhatsApp Chat, the Book Appointment page, or the Care Doctor app, available for download on Google Play and the App Store. In addition to appointments, you can monitor your queue number and access other relevant information there.

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